Bailey, recovering from right thumb surgery, started the game and allowed one hit and one walk on 20 pitches (11 strikes).
"He threw a couple balls 93 mph and felt good," Red Sox manager Bobby Valentine said.
The right-hander will make his next appearance Sunday with either Double-A Portland or Triple-A Pawtucket. Both clubs play at home that day.
"I think it's the place that's closest. We'd like to get him in competition, but it's not the level of competition it's more convenience," Valentine said. "Double-A and Triple-A is kind of similar."
If Bailey goes to Pawtucket, he could relieve starter Daisuke Matsuzaka. Dice-K is scheduled to make his second rehab start with the PawSox on Sunday against Lehigh Valley.
Dice-K, recovering from a right trapezius strain, tossed 2 1/3 scoreless innings Monday for Pawtucket. He struck out three against one walk and allowed four hits.
Before Friday's game against the Twins, Dice-K threw from flat ground in the outfield at Fenway Park.
"After his 47-pitch stint the other day, he feels really good and he's going to give us more than that this next time out this weekend, 80 or 90 [pitches] hopefully," Valentine said. "He feels good, had a really good bullpen session."
Bailey has not pitched for the Red Sox this season. Dice-K was 0-3 with a 6.65 ERA in five starts after returning from Tommy John surgery in June.