Aceves had been optioned to Pawtucket on Wednesday, a day after he pitched two-thirds of an inning against the Mariners.
There appeared to be disagreement between Aceves and the Red Sox if an injury led to that stint being shortened.
Red Sox manager John Farrell said the club thought Aceves was healthy. However, Aceves told Masslive.com that he had an oblique injury and might not be able to pitch for weeks.
Aceves hasn't pitched since his return to Pawtucket.
To pitch again for the Red Sox this season, Aceves would have to be put back on the 40-man roster, something that does not seem likely.
The team suspended the right-hander for three games last season for a tirade that occurred when then-manager Bobby Valentine removed him from the closer's role.
Farrell had started this season by giving Aceves a clean slate, but the manager's patience was tested as early as Spring Training, when the righty went through the motions during pitchers' batting practice.
Things quieted for a while, but Aceves again annoyed the Red Sox with a lackluster effort against the A's on April 23, when he was hammered for eight runs and seven hits over 3 1/3 innings and didn't seem to be pitching with a lot of intensity.
He was optioned back to the Minors after that start, but returned to pitch well in spot starts on May 27, June 12 and June 18.
Ian Browne is a reporter for MLB.com. Read his blog, Brownie Points, and follow him on Twitter @IanMBrowne. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.