To make room on the 25-man roster, the Red Sox designated infielder Chris Woodward for assignment and sent outfielder Josh Reddick to Triple-A Pawtucket.
Anderson was called up because of his defensive prowess. J.D. Drew played through a sore groin muscle on Friday night, and manager Terry Francona doesn't expect to start him again until Wednesday in Toronto.
The Red Sox have an off-day on Monday, but didn't want to start Drew against Ricky Romero, a left-hander, on Tuesday.
Drew approached Francona in the eighth inning of Friday's 8-4 win over the Rangers to say he couldn't finish the game. Francona persuaded his outfielder to continue playing, and Drew hit a two-run home run the next inning.
Anderson can play all three outfield positions well.
"It's good to be here," Anderson said. "I love playing defense; [I] love playing center field. Playing the corners is just as tough, if not tougher. Terry is the type of manager who will let you know what he expects from you."
Reddick was hitting .188 over nine games and 32 at-bats with the Red Sox.
Anderson was hitting .268 with six home runs over 27 games and 97 at-bats at the time of his promotion.
"[Anderson] can run, play all of the outfield spots, and he's got some juice in his bat," Francona said.
The trade that sent Gonzalez to the Red Sox caught him by surprise.
"My agent called me, and I [was] surprised," Gonzalez said. "You never know where you'll be tomorrow or even tonight. I enjoyed playing over there. I'm excited to be in a race."
Gonzalez was on the disabled list from June 20-July 23 because of surgery to remove bone chips from his left elbow. He is highly regarded as a defensive option at shortstop and says he's completely healthy.
"There's no reason to get him and sit him," Francona said. "We didn't get him to pinch-hit. We meant to get him to catch the ball. The timing is fortunate for us."
Gonzalez was hitting .210 with three home runs and 26 RBIs in 68 games this season for the Reds. He has made only six errors in 266 total chances.
Woodward was hitting .225 over 25 games and 71 at-bats this season for the Red Sox.